What is CV? Distinguishing between CV, resume, and cover letter

What is a job application CV?

In definition, a CV is a detailed summary of personal information related to name, work experience, professional qualifications, and skills related to the field that the applicant is applying for. Simply put, a CV is an essential document in a job application. Employers will rely on the information provided to conduct a brief evaluation of the applicant or even choose a suitable candidate for the position being advertised.

Some concepts related to CV

What is the title of your CV?

Due to the digitization of the recruitment process in corporations and companies, nowadays employers require candidates to submit their CVs via email. Therefore, the concept of the CV title can be understood as the file name of the CV or the subject line of the email containing the CV.

What is a CV Builder?

CV builder is an English term, which is roughly translated as a tool for creating CVs. In Vietnam and around the world, many online tools and websites make it easy to create a CV. One of them is CVHay.vn, which is part of the CareerViet ecosystem, offering many professional designs that are suitable for a variety of industries.

What is an online CV?

CV Online is also known as an Online Resume. The use of online CV templates is increasingly popular because it allows job seekers to quickly create a CV by simply connecting to the internet and using a device. Online CV templates have many advantages, including being easy to create, having many beautiful templates, and being convenient to send via email.

The different between resume, cover letter and CV

CV and resume They are often used interchangeably in some countries. For new graduates or those preparing to work in a multinational environment, they may confuse these concepts. The table below summarizes and differentiates the three concepts of resume, cover letter, and CV.

Cover letter



Cover letter


1 - 2 pages

More than 1 page.

The form of a letter is one page long.

Items to include

Introduce yourself, career objectives, work experience, education, skills,...

Full name, contact information, work experience, skills, extracurricular activities, education level, achievements,...

A brief description of relevant work experience and skills related to the job being applied for.

Purpose of use

The purpose of the use is to find job opportunities in Asian, European, Middle Eastern, and African countries.

Studying abroad, seeking scholarships, pursuing scientific research, or related jobs in research are common purposes for people in the United States.

A type of document in a job application.

It is used to apply for a job, usually sent along with a CV or resume.

Current forms of CV

Currently, there are two types of job application CVs that candidates can choose to submit to employers: hard copy (printed) CVs and soft copy (digital) CVs. So what are the differences between these two types of CVs? And when should we use a hard copy or a soft copy CV?

What is hard file CV?

Hard file CV is a printed version of a CV on A4 paper, often used by job seekers to bring to an in-person interview with the employer to demonstrate professionalism and attention to detail. A hard file CV is an essential part of a job application package if the employer requires you to submit a hard copy application directly to the company.

What is soft file CV?

soft file CValso known as an online CV, is a job application document that is created using computer software. You can create your digital CV using programs such as Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and Excel, or by using a standard CV template provided by career websites such as CareerViet. Your CV can be saved as either a Word or PDF file. Digital CVs are often used when applying for online job postings. Job seekers can submit their CVs to potential employers through job search platforms.

What does a job application CV include?

Job application CV title

For CV templates in soft copy, the title of the CV plays a very important role, which many candidates often overlook. It will help you make a good first impression on the employer. When creating a CV, candidates need to know how to title the CV to demonstrate their professionalism. With the large volume of resumes that employers receive every day, the title is a way to help them easily identify your job application.

The title of a job application is usually written in the following structure: CV - Candidate's full name - Position applied for.

Personal information of the candidate

A CV serves as a summary of the basic information of the candidate, so applicants should not introduce themselves too extensively in this section. Instead, focus on describing your work experiences and skills, as these are the things that employers are interested in. Therefore, you only need to list basic personal information such as

  • Fullname: Use your real name and write it in all caps to create emphasis, avoid using nicknames
  • Date of Birth: Using the date of birth as stated in personal identification documents.
  • Email Address: Choosing a professional email address is important. Ideally, it should include the candidate's name.
  • Phone number: using your current phone number to easily contact by employers
  • Link social network pageof yours so that employer wants to connect or learn more about you, you can provide your social media handles such as Facebook, Instagram,...
  • Current Place: The exact address of the place where you currently reside

Career Objective in CV

Objective This will show the employer your desire for the position you are applying for and also your future aspirations. Divide it into: short term and long term. However, it is important to note that the objective set must be practical, suitable for your abilities and development orientation. You should not set a goal that is too low as it may make the employer feel that you lack determination, but at the same time, do not set a goal that is too high as it may be evaluated as a person who is unrealistic or idealistic.

Listing work Experience

In this section, the employer will focus on the work experience in your CV that is related to the position you are applying for. This shows the candidate will quickly adapt to the job and work environment. If you are a student or have no prior work experience, don't hesitate to list the part-time jobs you have had while in school or the clubs, teams, or groups you have participated in that are related to the position you are applying for. This will also be a plus point for you in the eyes of the employer. And don't forget to research thoroughly the position you are applying for so that the employer can see that you are an enthusiastic, willing-to-learn, and work person.

Education level

Candidates should provide information related to their academic qualifications, including the degree, school, major, and graduation year. It's also important to include the grade point average (GPA). In addition, if applicable, candidates can also list any additional certificates or external courses they have taken to enhance their skills and knowledge.

Listing skills in CV

The skills that candidates should list in their job application CV to make their profile more perfect in the eyes of employers include:

  • Teamworks
  • Leader skills
  • Communication skills
  • Problem solving skills
  • Presentation skills
  • Time management skills
  • critical thinking skills.
  • Microsoft Office skills.
  • Foreign language skills

Focus on the skills that are highly relevant to the position you are applying for. Note that skills should be stated truthfully to avoid disappointment for the employer after being hired.

Extracurricular activities, certificates, scholarships, and awards (if any)

In this section, candidates should list relevant certificates related to the job, such as language certificates, awards received during their student years, or achievements during their work experience. These will be big plus points in your CV.

Strengths and weaknesses

Strengths and weaknesses in a CV can help employers assess your personality and abilities more accurately. So how should you present your strengths and weaknesses to avoid losing points with the hiring manager?

  • Strengths: Write truthfully and accurately, and focus on your strengths that will bring outstanding contributions to the position you are applying for. .
  • Weaknesses: State your limitations and propose solutions to improve those weaknesses. This will show that you are a person with the determination and effort to develop yourself.

Adding Hobbies in CV

Hobbies in your CV is not mandatory in a CV. You should not list too many unrelated hobbies in your job application, instead, choose hobbies that show your personality. You can refer to the following questions to select appropriate hobbies to include in your CV:

  • What do you do in your free-time?
  • What are your passions? How have you pursued those passions?
  • What new skills have your hobbies brought you?

In the "Hobbies" section of a CV, candidates should be concise and to the point, avoiding rambling or being unclear.

Writing references in CV

Many recruiters have a need to verify the work experience of candidates with their previous employers, so you should also prepare reference information with the person in charge of you at your previous workplace. If you have never worked before, you can fill in the information of your academic advisor. The information to be listed includes the name, position, place of work, phone number, and email address of the reference person.


Mr. Nguyen Huu Nguyen - head of department HR

CareerViet Company

Phone number: 0123456789

Top impressive, professional, and suitable CVs for many industries

Sample customer service CV for job application.

CVHay - proud to be a famous "free CV builder" in Vietnam

What is CVHay?

CV Hay is a website that provides beautiful, professional, and free CV templates to help users create an impressive CV. In addition, the website also provides tips on how to write a CV, cover letter, interview, and many fields related to job search. CV Hay is designed with a simple and user-friendly interface, allowing users to create their CV in just a few minutes.

How to create a simple and free job application CV using the CVHay tool.

To create a CV on CVHay, you can follow these steps:

  • Access CVHay via website https://careerviet.vn/cv-hay.
  • Click on the "Sign up" button and enter your personal information to create an account.
  • Choose the CV template that you want to use. CV Hay offers various CV templates for you to choose from.
  • Enter your personal information and work experience in the corresponding fields. You can also upload your photo and attach any relevant documents. Pictures and attach some necessary document
  • Add sections for your education, skills, and certifications.
  • You can customize the layout and design of your CV according to your preferences. You can change the color, font, and font size.
  • Check and edit your job application CV to ensure it is complete and accurate.
  • After completing, you can download your CV in PDF format or directly share the link with the employer.

Guide on how to write a job application CV

How to write a standard English job application CV

  • 1. Information personal (Personal details)

Present personal information in English:

Họ và tên

Full name

Ngày tháng năm sinh

Date of birth (Example: 21 Feb 1998)

Địa chỉ


Số điện thoại

Phone number

Thư điện tử


Các trang thông tin trực tuyến, mạng xã hội, blog


  • 2. Mục tiêu nghề nghiệp (Career objective)

Find below a sample of a short career objective in English:

“I would like to apply for the position of General Accountant to contribute my energy to the long-term development of the company and become the head of the accounting department in one year”

  • 3. Trình độ học vấn, bằng cấp (Education and Qualifications)

Some commonly used vocabulary about educational qualifications and degrees in English CVs.

GPA (Grade point average)

Điểm trung bình


Thực tập sinh

B.A. (Bachelor of Arts)

Cử nhân


Thạc sĩ


Tiến sĩ


Giáo sư

Associate Professor

Phó giáo sư

Academic Rank/Academic title

Học hàm, học vị


Tú tài, tốt nghiệp Trung học Phổ thông

  • 4. Kinh nghiệm làm việc (Work experience)

Example of Digital Marketing work experience in English :

  • Planning and set up advertising campaigns
  • Tracking and optimizing advertising campaigns, optimizing bid prices and conversion rate sets CPA, CTR, CPM, CPC,...
  • Researching customer objects and the needs of each object to come up with effective marketing plans and campaigns

  • 5. Thành tựu, giải thưởng - chứng chỉ (Achievements, prize and certificate)

List the awards and certificates related to the English language such as IELTS, TOEFL, and TOEIC.

  • 6. Sở thích (Interests)

Choose hobbies that can help develop yourself and are more relevant to the job you are applying for, such as listening to English music, reading English books, participating in English exchange clubs,...

  • 7. Kỹ năng (Skills)

Some vocabulary related to skills in a CV template could include: CV English for you:

Kỹ năng giao tiếp

Communication skills

Kỹ năng sáng tạo

Creative skills

Kỹ năng lập kế hoạch

Planning skills

Kỹ năng làm việc nhóm

Teamwork skill

Kỹ năng giải quyết vấn đề

Problem-solving skills

Kỹ năng quản lý thời gian

Time management skills

Kỹ năng học hỏi

Learning skills

Kỹ năng đàm phán

Negotiation skills

Kỹ năng lãnh đạo

Leadership skills

How to write a standard Japanese resume

  • 1. Personal Information: 個人情報

Some information that should be mentioned in a Japanese CV include:


名前と苗字. Enter the phonetic transcription of your name in Katakana so that the employer can accurately pronounce your name.

Date of Birth

生年月日. Fill in according to the format used by Japanese people: [Year] 年 [Month] 月[Day]日



Phone number




  • 2. Objective: キャリア目標

Refer to the career objective written in Japanese of IT industry:

“ 経験豊富なソフトウェア開発者として、会社に貢献したいという熱意を持って、私は IT 部門の責任者になるよう努めます。”

  • 3. Education, Diploma: 学歴

Some vocabulary about degrees in Japanese:

Average Score












  • 4. Experience: 職歴

Please summarize your work experience in Japanese when writing your CV. Since the Japanese often discourage candidates from constantly changing jobs, you need to pay attention to giving clear reasons if you have ever quit your job at your old workplace. If you've changed jobs many times, consider removing unrelated jobs from